Global Education

Teacher resources to encourage a global
perspective across the curriculum

Globalisation

prv
nxt
  • Papua New Guinea’s first satellite dish will bring clearer, more reliable radio signals and improve connections to the world.
  • In 2006, women were active participants in the first direct elections in Aceh, Indonesia. They voted and stood for office.
  • The Friendship Bridge, built with Australian aid, connects Thailand and Laos and opens up trade between the two countries.
  • The Australia-Pacific Technical College, in Fiji, in partnership with local industry, provides training for local workers.
  • Air travel provides a vital link between the islands of Fiji, spread over 1.3 million square kilometres of the Pacific Ocean.
  • Henry Ford introduced the assembly line that allowed for mass production leading to cars becoming more affordable.
  • Pacific Island recruiting ship 'Para', c 1880
  • Pacific Islanders recruited and indentured from Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to work in the Australian sugar industry arriving in Bundaberg.
  • Cartoon supporting he Pacific Island Labourers Bill, 1901, showing the Prime Minister, Edmund Barton, cleaning a black boy.
  • Former Pacific Island indentured labourers waiting for deportation from Cairns, Australia, to their homes in Vanuatu and Solomon Islands, 1906.
  • Cultural, linguistic and biological evidence indicates people of the Pacific Islands travelled west through South-East Asia.
  • Carbon dating pottery found around the Pacific has shown the spread of people across the Pacific.
  • Thor Heyerdahl sailed from Peru to French Polynesia to show it was possible that the Pacific Islands were settled by people from the east.

Quick facts

  • Global income is more than $US31 trillion a year, but 1.4 billion people live on US$1.25 or less a day.
  • Today a single product may be designed, manufactured, assembled and marketed in separate countries.
  • World food exports were worth US$1,118 billion in 2010.
  • The internet has changed the way the world learns, communicates and does business. In 2009, there were 71.9 people per 100 using the internet in high income countries, while there were only 2.6 per 100 in low income countries.

Contributors' notes

Contribute
Contribution guidelines

(appears on page)

Cancel

Introduction

What is globalisation?

There are many different definitions of globalisation, but most acknowledge economic integration – namely, the increase in international trade and investment – which has driven the movement of people, goods, capital and ideas across borders.

While there has always been a sharing of goods, services, knowledge and cultures between people and countries, improved technologies and the removal of trade restrictions have meant that the speed of exchange is much cheaper and faster.

Benefits and problems of globalisation

Globalisation provides both opportunities and challenges. Bigger markets can mean bigger profits and greater wealth, which can be used for investing in development and reducing poverty. Each country tries to make decisions and policies that position them to maximise the benefits of globalisation. However, trade barriers, weak domestic policies, institutions and infrastructure can restrict a country’s ability to do so.

The perceived effects of globalisation excite strong feelings, tempting people to regard it in black and white terms, when in fact globalisation is an extremely complex web of issues and interactions.

The following table presents ten opposing points of view often expressed about globalisation.

 Benefits of globalisationProblems of globalisation
1Trade liberalisation means the economies of richer countries have consistently grown much faster than those countries that try to protect themselves.Trade liberalisation requires participating countries to undertake costly economic reform. While this will bring benefits in the long term the social costs for those affected can be high.
2Countries which have had faster economic growth have then been able to improve living standards and reduce poverty.Countries which have been unable to take advantage of globalisation are dropping further behind the richest countries. The gap between rich and poor and the number of people below the poverty line have both grown over the past two decades.
3Improved health through the economic gains of globalisation has led to improved life expectancy.Globalisation has increased travel, which hashelped spread diseases such as HIV/AIDS, SARS and avian flu, across borders.
Globalisation has also increased the use of tobacco and fast foods, leading to associated adverse health and financial costs.
4Higher global income and reduced investment barriers have increased foreign direct investment in many countries, which in turn has accelerated growth.The increasing interdependence of countries in a globalised world makes them more vulnerable to economic problems like the 2008 Global Financial Crisis.
5Improved environmental awareness and accountability has contributed to positive environmental outcomes by encouraging the use of more efficient, less polluting technologies.Global agricultural, forest, mining and fishing companies have exploited inadequate environmental codes and corrupt behaviour.
6Increased interdependence and global institutions such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization and World Bank, have bolstered peace, as countries are unlikely to enter into conflict with trading partners and poverty reduction helps reduce the breeding grounds for terrorism.Spending by rich countries on agricultural protection against imported goods from developing countries has been estimated to be around five times what the rich countries provide in aid to developing countries.
7Improved technology has dramatically reduced costs and has changed the way the world communicates, learns, conducts business and treats illnesses.Technological improvements have allowed cheap imports of manufactured goods to occur, destroying traditional agricultural communities, and increasing unemployment and skills shortages.
8Availability of information through the internet and social media has contributed to the toppling of undemocratic regimes and a growth in liberal democracies.Modern communications have spread an awareness of the differences between countries, and increased the demand for migration to richer countries. In response, some richer countries have tightened the barriers against migrant workers, xenophobic fears have increased in some sections of the community, and people smugglers have exploited vulnerable people.
9The voluntary adoption by global companies of workplace standards for their production facilities in developing countries has made an important contribution to international labour standards and poverty reduction.Globalised competition can force a 'race to the bottom’ in wage rates and labour standards. It can also foster a ’brain drain’ of skilled workers, where highly educated professionals, such as doctors, engineers and IT specialists migrate to developed countries to benefit from the higher wages, creating skilled labour shortages in their own countries.
10International migration has led to greater recognition of diversity and respect for cultural identities, which is improving democracy and access to human rights.Indigenous and national culture and languages can be eroded by the modern globalised culture.

 

Responses

Australia’s response

Australia is an example of a country that has benefited from globalisation, both in terms of exports and as a borrower of international capital. The standard of living Australians enjoy now can be attributed to its ‘open’ and, therefore competitive, economy.

Recognising that economic growth is a key factor in a country’s development, the Australian Government provides assistance to aid partners to create economic policy and conditions to encourage growth and to ensure the benefits of growth are effectively distributed. This assistance, which typically covers many aspects of development focuses on:

  • supporting partner countries’ participation in international trade
  • improving growth in the domestic private sector and access to financial services
  • building governance capacity and effective financial management
  • investing in the country’s workforce through health and education programs
  • supporting programs for the environment, including sustainability and climate change.

Source

AusAID www.ausaid.gov.au

International responses

There are a number of international organisations established to assist all countries to take advantage of the opportunities presented by globalisation and encourage cooperation and interdependence regionally and globally.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

World Bank

World Trade Organization

Teaching activity

Pacific Islanders in Australia

Cartoon supporting he Pacific Island Labourers Bill, 1901, showing the Prime Minister, Edmund Barton, cleaning a black boy.
Students explore 150 years of connections between Australians and people of Vanuatu and Solomon Islands. They examine attitudes that led to the bringing of Pacific Islander labourers to Australia, their treatment and current contributions to Australian society and economy
Read more
Year level: 9-10
Issue: Cultural diversity, Globalisation
Country: Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu

The global car industry

Henry Ford introduced the assembly line that allowed for mass production leading to cars becoming more affordable.
Students explore interdependence and globalisation through examining the car manufacturing industry. They develop an awareness of the role of political forces and economic development and its effect on living standards and the environment. They classify the positive and negative effects of globalisation, identify the perspectives of different groups and use data to support their own point of view.
Read more
Year level: 9-10
Issue: Globalisation
Country: Australia, China

Tourism and development

The steep Haa Valley in western Bhutan looks toward the snow-capped Himalayas.
Students examine the positive and negative effects of tourism in Australia and Bhutan using a case study and statistics to examine social, environmental and economic changes. They examine how varying approaches to tourism can support positive development and limit the negative effects. They reflect on their own future behaviour.
Read more
Year level: 9-10
Issue: Cultural diversity, Globalisation, Poverty reduction
Country: Australia, Bhutan

Voyage to the Pacific

Cultural, linguistic and biological evidence indicates people of the Pacific Islands travelled west through South-East Asia.
Students examine oral histories, language and scientific evidence to learn about interpreting evidence and timeline construction.
Read more
Year level: 7-8
Issue: Cultural diversity, Globalisation
Country: Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu

What is globalisation?

Papua New Guinea’s first satellite dish will bring clearer, more reliable radio signals and improve connections to the world.
This unit develops students’ understandings of the term ‘globalisation’ using artwork, descriptions and a campaign. Students examine contrasting views about globalisation and gain insight into its positive and negative impacts.
Read more
Year level: 9-10
Issue: Globalisation

What's globalisation got to do with me?

In 2006, women were active participants in the first direct elections in Aceh, Indonesia. They voted and stood for office.
Students explore ways in which they are linked to flows of people, capital, goods and services around the world; discuss advantages and disadvantages of globalisation; and analyse the intercultural understandings that inform working in a global context.
Read more
Year level: 9-10
Issue: Globalisation, Cultural diversity

Case studies

Australian Pacific Islanders

Pacific Island recruiting ship 'Para', c 1880
During the second half of the 19th century Pacific Islanders were vital labour for the sugar industry, but many were deported when Australia became a nation in 1901.
Read more

Globalisation and the car industry

Henry Ford introduced the assembly line that allowed for mass production leading to cars becoming more affordable.
Car manufacturing has been a global industry since its beginning. It has been a major employer and, over the last 100 years, has provided safer and more accessible transport for increasing numbers of people, including in newly industrialised countries. However car-related pollution and congestion have become an issue in many major cities.
Read more

People of the Pacific

Cultural, linguistic and biological evidence indicates people of the Pacific Islands travelled west through South-East Asia.
The origin stories of Pacific Islanders and scientific evidence provide insights into the formation and history of settlement of the Pacific Islands.
Read more

Tourism for development in Bhutan

The steep Haa Valley in western Bhutan looks toward the snow-capped Himalayas.
The tiny kingdom of Bhutan is trying to balance maintaining its traditional cultures with the improvements that connecting to the world can bring.
Read more

Resources

A 'Silent Tsunami'

silent_tsunami cover
A 'Silent Tsunami': Global Food Security in the 21st Century (2008) booklet investigates the issue of food security, equity and sustainability.
Read more
Year level: 7-8,9-10
Issue: Australia's aid, Food security, Globalisation, Human rights, Poverty reduction
Country: Australia, Bangladesh

Developing Global Citizens CD-ROM

Developing global citizens CD image
The Developing Global Citizens (2010) CD-ROM integrates global perspectives into five primary and five secondary units of work using multimedia.
Read more
Year level: 3-4,5-6,7-8,9-10
Issue: Australia's aid, Environment, Food security, Globalisation, Human rights, Poverty reduction

Food for All

food_for_all_cover
The Food for All (2008) booklet introduces teachers to factors contributing to food security for all people.
Read more
Year level: 5-6,7-8
Issue: Australia's aid, Food security, Globalisation, Human rights, Poverty reduction
Country: Australia

Forests: A Global Perspective

Forests a global perspective cover
The Forests: A Global Perspective (2011) booklet uses information, maps, graphs, photographs, and data to develop understanding about forests, the uses made of them and the actions taken to manage them sustainably.
Read more
Year level: 7-8,9-10
Issue: Australia's aid, Environment, Food security, Globalisation, Human rights, Poverty reduction
Country: Australia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Vietnam

Globalise Me!

Globalise me! CD image
The Globalise Me! A Student's Guide to Globalisation (2004) CD-ROM presents a range of resources to explore globalisation through the themes of people, culture, economy, trade, development, technology, politics and environment.
Read more
Year level: 9-10,11-12
Issue: Australia's aid, Environment, Globalisation, Human rights

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

The International Monetary Fund works to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty.

http://www.imf.org

Jakarta faces

The Jakarta faces module gives year 7–8 students the opportunity to examine the causes and consequences of urbanisation. Teacher notes provide useful background and the activities use cooperative learning to examine sources such as Google Earth, wikis, maps and statistics about Jakarta and the cost of living to develop understanding about planning for the future of a mega-city.

http://asiaeducation.edu.au/curriculum_resources/geography/year_7-8_jakarta_faces/year_7-8_jakarta_faces.html

Looking at Forests

Looking at forests cover
The Looking at Forests (2011) booklet of information and activities develops knowledge and understanding about forests at a local, national and global level.
Read more
Year level: 5-6,7-8
Issue: Environment, Food security, Globalisation, Poverty reduction
Country: Australia, Indonesia

Pacific Neighbours

Pacific Neighbours book cover
Pacific Neighbours: Understanding the Pacific Islands (2009) is a resource book to develop understanding of the region, its history and geography, its political and social development, and its people and their cultures.
Read more
Year level: 7-8,9-10
Issue: Australia's aid, Environment, Human rights, Globalisation, Peace building, Water and sanitation
Country: Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Australia

World Bank

The World Bank aims to fight poverty and improve the living standards of people in the developing world. It is a development bank that provides low-interest loans, interest-free credit, grants, policy advice, technical assistance and knowledge-sharing services to low- and middle-income countries. Its website includes a wealth of statistics and information on these issues.

http://www.worldbank.org

World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is a global international organisation dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and ratified by the bulk of the world's trading nations. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters and importers conduct their business.

http://www.wto.org

This page intentionally left blank
Papua New Guinea’s first satellite dish will bring clearer, more reliable radio signals and improve connections to the world.
Photo by Francina Thompson/AusAID
Print | Save
Papua New Guinea’s first satellite dish will bring clearer, more reliable radio signals and improve connections to the world. Photo by Francina Thompson/AusAID
In 2006, women were active participants in the first direct elections in Aceh, Indonesia. They voted and stood for office.
Photo by AusAID
Print | Save
In 2006, women were active participants in the first direct elections in Aceh, Indonesia. They voted and stood for office. Photo by AusAID
The Friendship Bridge, built with Australian aid, connects Thailand and Laos and opens up trade between the two countries.
Photo by Jim Holmes for AusAID
Print | Save
The Friendship Bridge, built with Australian aid, connects Thailand and Laos and opens up trade between the two countries. Photo by Jim Holmes for AusAID
The Australia-Pacific Technical College, in Fiji, in partnership with local industry, provides training for local workers.
Photo by Rocky Roe for AusAID
Print | Save
The Australia-Pacific Technical College, in Fiji, in partnership with local industry, provides training for local workers. Photo by Rocky Roe for AusAID
Air travel provides a vital link between the islands of Fiji, spread over 1.3 million square kilometres of the Pacific Ocean.
Photo by Herman Luyken /Wikimedia http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
Print | Save
Air travel provides a vital link between the islands of Fiji, spread over 1.3 million square kilometres of the Pacific Ocean. Photo by Herman Luyken /Wikimedia http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
Henry Ford introduced the assembly line. This led to mass-production, which in turn led to cars becoming more affordable.
© Car Culture/Corbis
Print | Save
Henry Ford introduced the assembly line. This led to mass-production, which in turn led to cars becoming more affordable. © Car Culture/Corbis
Pacific Island recruiting ship 'Para', c 1880
State Library of Queensland, negative number 65320
Print | Save
Pacific Island recruiting ship 'Para', c 1880 State Library of Queensland, negative number 65320
Pacific Islanders recruited and indentured from Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to work in the Australian sugar industry arriving in Bundaberg.
State Library of Queensland, negative number 16954
Print | Save
Pacific Islanders recruited and indentured from Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to work in the Australian sugar industry arriving in Bundaberg. State Library of Queensland, negative number 16954
Cartoon supporting he Pacific Island Labourers Bill, 1901, showing the Prime Minister, Edmund Barton, cleaning a black boy.
National Library of Australia, BIB 1085805
Print | Save
Cartoon supporting he Pacific Island Labourers Bill, 1901, showing the Prime Minister, Edmund Barton, cleaning a black boy. National Library of Australia, BIB 1085805
Former Pacific Island indentured labourers waiting for deportation from Cairns, Australia, to their homes in Vanuatu and Solomon Islands, 1906.
State Library of Queensland, negative number 23842
Print | Save
Former Pacific Island indentured labourers waiting for deportation from Cairns, Australia, to their homes in Vanuatu and Solomon Islands, 1906. State Library of Queensland, negative number 23842
Cultural, linguistic and biological evidence indicates people of the Pacific Islands travelled west through South-East Asia.
Magasjukur2, Creative Commons BY-SA 2.5 licence.
Print | Save
Cultural, linguistic and biological evidence indicates people of the Pacific Islands travelled west through South-East Asia. Magasjukur2, Creative Commons BY-SA 2.5 licence.
Carbon dating pottery found around the Pacific has shown the spread of people across the Pacific.
Stephen Alvarez/National Geographic/Getty Images
Print | Save
Carbon dating pottery found around the Pacific has shown the spread of people across the Pacific. Stephen Alvarez/National Geographic/Getty Images
Thor Heyerdahl sailed from Peru to French Polynesia to show it was possible that the Pacific Islands were settled by people from the east.
Alison Wright/National Geographic Society/Corbis.
Print | Save
Thor Heyerdahl sailed from Peru to French Polynesia to show it was possible that the Pacific Islands were settled by people from the east. Alison Wright/National Geographic Society/Corbis.